If earlier it was believed that the discovery of grapes belonged to the Phoenicians, today it is reliably known that the origin of this plant occurred much earlier and the Phoenicians, and all of humanity. The historical roots of the vine rest against the Cretaceous period: representatives of the species Vitis (grapes) were discovered by scientists in Alaska in Upper Cretaceous sediments. The tertiary period confirms the mass distribution of grapes, not only in the Eurasian part of our planet, but even in the High North. Many trials fell on the fate of the vine. One of these was the ice age. It is believed that the grapes that we know today, descended from their ancestors, who froze out during that cold time. Presumptions of prescription of origin are confirmed not only by paleontologists or geologists, but also by linguists. The word “grapes” was actively used in the oldest known Sanskrit language, as well as in Latin (vinum) and Greek.
From assumptions to facts …
The most irrefutable proof of the history of the grapes are wall murals, bas-reliefs and sketches of writing, which tell about the cultivation of the vine in Egypt 6-7 thousand years ago. And already in those days, grapes were used to make wine. Some nations have particularly succeeded in this endeavor. Such, of course, are the Greeks. Despite the fact that the Phoenicians brought grapevines to the Greeks themselves, they were the ones who managed to develop winemaking to an enormous scale. The ancient “breeders” of Greece did not develop new varieties (they sowed the seeds), used fertilizers, used vaccinations, stamping and ringing. They, despite the lack of marketers and advertising, were able to establish a good trade in grape gifts with India and Asia. Also, thanks to ancient Greece, the vine was imported to ancient Rome, and from there to present-day Spain and Germany. Since then, the vine has become a tireless companion of humanity. In some countries, winemaking fell into decay, in others, on the contrary, it became the main industry. Today, there are many different grape varieties: they are divided mainly into three groups: European (Spain, Italy, France, Germany, Portugal), Eastern (Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan), the Black Basin group (Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria ).